The use of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) presents a significant opportunity for municipal and corporate fleets to reduce fuel costs and decrease greenhouse gas emissions. The cost of electricity for charging a fleet of PEVs can be minimized by managing charging based on fleet PEV usage needs to avoid demand charges, high electric rates, and participation in demand response (DR) programs and electricity markets. This project will demonstrate that cost savings for fleets can be achieved in the near term with currently available PEVs and charging stations because the proposed managed charging system does not require bi-directional capability that is not yet commercially available.
This project will develop and demonstrate a managed charging control system applied to over 50 Alameda County fleet PEVs and charging stations. In addition to demonstrating the 5 use cases listed below, approaches will be developed to engage non-fleet PEV owners who charge their vehicles at Alameda County’s publicly available charging stations and manage their charging station loads to further reduce utility costs. This approach can also be applied to commercial/workplace charging and provide large benefits in managing peak demand across California. Although the project focuses on uni-directional charging, the approach is compatible with future vehicles and chargers that are bi-directionally compatible. The data collected will inform new models in LBNL’s vehicle-to-grid simulator (V2G-Sim) to conduct vehicle-grid integration (VGI) values analysis. As V2G-Sim is available for all VGI stakeholders, the knowledge gained in this project enables improved analysis to prove costs, benefits, values, and impact from greater deployment of VGI.
The project will demonstrate the following managed charging use electric cases:
- Minimizing operating costs for PEVs by leveraging time of use rates.
- Minimizing operating costs for PEVs and facilities by mitigating demand charges.
- Generating new revenue and minimizing grid impacts by responding to PG&E automated DR and wholesale market DR signals.
- Generating new revenue and offering wholesale market ancillary services through the PG&E supply-side pilot program.
- Coordinating PEV managed charging with existing systems, including integration with existing building energy systems, and providing grid support for distribution systems.